The process of salivary protein secretion is via a process
The secretion of fluid component of saliva is initiated by
Release of calcium ions
In a salivary acini chloride ions are found in large
numbers along the
Luminal surface
In a salivary acini potassium ions are found in large
numbers along the
Basolateral surface
The sodium ions moves across the salivary acini in a
Paracellular pathway
The nerve innervations to salivary gland can be
Either epilemmal or hypolemmal
In the hypolemmal type of nervous innervation, the axons
Lose their schwann cell covering
The basement membrane of the salivary acini is penetrated
when the innervation to it is by  
Purely hypolemmal
The sympathetic stimulation of salivary gland result in a
Protein secretion
The parasympathetic stimulation of salivary gland result
in a
Water and electrolyte secretion
The buffer system of saliva include(s) the
Bicarbonate buffer system; Phosphate buffer system;
Protein buffer system
A unit cell of biologic apatite crystals has a shape of a
Stubby rhomboic pattern
The layer of water around each apatite crystallite is
referred as
Hydration shell
The layer(s) of crystal is (are)
Crystal interior; Crystal surface and Hydration shell
The calcium in apatite crystal can be substituted by
The fluoride ion on reacting with apatite crystals takes
up the position of
Hydroxyl ions. So does the chloride ion
In an apatite crystal the hydroxyl and phosphate can be
substituted by
The fluoride substitution in biological apatite crystals
Decreases solubility
The carbonate substitution in biological apatite crystals
Increases solubility
The magnesium substitution in biological apatite crystals
Inhibit crystal growth. Sodium has also similar effect
The electron microscope appearance of an apatite crystals
Needle like
The vesicles of the matrix vesicle theory causes
Only initial mineralization
The minerals in hard tissue during mineralization lie
Lie at the gap zones
In a mature hard tissue the minerals are placed
Incorporated within the collagen fibrils
The function of alkaline phosphatase is to hydrolyze
Phosphate ions from organic radicals at alkaline pH
The role of pyrophosphates,  found in the zone of active mineralization
To prevent crystal enlargement
A cell possess a cytoskeleton made up of
Microtubule and filaments
The transmembrane that attach to the extracellular matrix
to the cell and often found in the macula occludens type of cell junction is
The common glycoprotein in the basement membrane is the
The function of cytoskeleton include (s)
Support cell and cell junction; Intracellular transport;
Tubulin is a type of
Microfilaments provide the cell with
Shape; Cytoplasmic movement; Cell contractility
The calcium dependent transmembrane protein that are found
in adherens type of cell junction is the
The common proteoglycan in the basement membrane is the
Heparan sulphate
Fibroblast synthesize
Collagen; Oxytalan, elastin, elaunin; Ground substance
The collagen is made up of
3 poly peptide alpha chains
All type of collagen have
High glycine content ; Always contain hydroxyproline and
hydroxylysine; Triple helix configuration arrangement
The class of collagen that have interruption in triple
helix of fibrils is the
Third domain collagen
Decorins bind
The fast pain is carried by the
C fibers
The type C nerve fibers predominantly carries the
Slow chronic pain
Receptors specialized for sensing pain is
Free nerve ending
When a patient has a low pain tolerance he has
The chemicals that stimulate the chemical type of pain
receptors includes
Bradykinnin, Histamine, Serotonin, Potassium ions, Acids
The fast pain nerves travels at a speed of
6-30 meters / second
The predominant pathway (s) by which the fast pain is
conducted is the
Neospinothalamic pathway
The paleospinothalamic pathway predominantly involves the
Slow type of pain
The first order neuron of neospinothalamic tract
terminates at
Lamina marginlais
In neospinothalamic tract, from the dorsal spinal root, to
the dorsal horn pass through
Tract of Lissauer
Tract of Lissauer lies immediately posterior to the
Dorsal horn of gray matter
Neospinothalamic tract ends at
Ventrobasal complex
Substansia gelatinosa is formed by the
Lamina II and III
Substansia gelatinosa is associated with
Paleospinothalamic pathway
When type C nerve fibers synapse in dorsal horn of spinal
cord they release a neurpolypeptide called
Substance P
Slow pain pathway terminates at area
Reticular nuclei; Tectal area; Periaqueductal gray region
The dorsal column nuclei consist of the
Cuneate and gravile nuclei
The cell membrane of a muscle fiber is
Each myofibril is made up of
3000 actin and 1500 actin filaments
“I” in I bands of muscle refers to ____________ property
of them under polarized light
The filaments in muscle in the region of A bands are
The space between two successive Z disc is referred as
Myofibrils are suspended in a matrix of
Muscle contraction occurs by a
Sliding filament mechanism
The myosin is formed by
2 heavy chain and 4 light chain
Actin filaments are made up of
Actin; Tropomyosin; Troponin
The increase in tension in muscle during muscle
contraction is called
Active tension
The continuous rhythmic chewing movements are brought
about by stimulation of
Reticular formation
The involuntary phase of deglutition includes
Pharyngeal and esophageal phase
The swallowing receptor areas are triggered by the
stimulation of
Tonsillar pillars
During the pharyngeal phase of deglutition the
palatopharyngeal folds
Approximate at midline
The neural control of the pharyngeal phase of deglutition
is by the
Trigeminal, glossopharyngeal nerve
The deglutition center(s) is(are) situated at
Medulla and lower pons
The motor innervations for deglutition is via the
5th, 9th, 10th, 12th
Cranial nerves
The secondary peristaltic movement during deglutition is caused
Distention of esophagus by food
The parasympathetic supply to salivary glands is from the
Salivatory nucleus
Salivatory nuclei lies at the
In medulla and pons  
The sympathetic innervation of salivary glands is from the
Superior cervical ganglion
During saliva formation, in the duct the sodium ions are
Actively resorbed
During the salivary modification in salivary ducts,
potassium ions are
Actively secreted
The chloride ions are ________ during the modification of
saliva in the ducts before opening in to oral cavity
Passively resorbed
Bicarbonate in saliva is secreted by the
Ductal epithelium       
Collagen is secreted from fibroblast as the
Post-transitional assembly of collagen  involves
Lysyl oxidase; Lsylhydroxylase; Procollagen peptidase
An amorphous protein when occurring alone in sheets and
lamellae in the extracellular matrix is the
Elastic fiber is initially secreted as a
Tubular glycoprotein
A large proteoglycan bonding cell surface glycoprotein to
extracellular matrix is the
The proteoglycan that along with fibronectin anchors
fibroblast to extracellular matrix is
Most of the mineral in dentin is observed within the
Collagen. 56% of the mineral in dentin occurs inside the
collagen fibers.
The mean number of nerve fibers entering a typical
premolar is about
900 fibers       
Near the dentinoenamel junction each nerve fiber is
estimated to provide at least
8 terminal branches
The nerve ending limited to the capsule of the
tempromandibular joint is the
Ruffini end organ. Along with the Pacinian corpuscles,
this organ is limited to the capsule of the temporomandibular joint.
The nerve endings limited to the ligaments of the
tempromandibular joint is the
Golgi tendon organ
The type of nerve endings that is most abundant in the
temporomandibular joint is the
Free nerve endings                                                                 
The hard tissue that has no collagen in its matrix is the
Hard tissue accepts minerals in the form of
Hydroxyapatite crystals
Apatite crystals are in the shape of
During hard tissue formation a local increase in
concentration of inorganic  ions
permitting  a number of crystallite to
form is the  
Homogenous nucleation
The presence of a nucleating substance occurs in
Heterogenous nucleation
In hard tissue formation, initial mineral deposition in
collagen occurs at
Gap zones
Resting lines in bone show high amount of
Sulphur. Calcium and phosphate ions are low in amount in
these resting lines.
Microfilaments are made up of
“Intracellular muscle of cells” are
Intermediate filaments determine the
Cell shape
Belts of a junction between cells is known as
Zonulae. When a junction occurs in spot it is called as
In cell-to-cell contact, microfilaments are associated
Adhesion belt
In cell-to-matrix contact, microfilaments are associated
Focal contact
Desmosomes are associated with
Hemidesmosomes are associated with
The type of collagen that has a chicken wire configuration
is the
Type IV collagen
In an embryonic fibroblast, cell-to-cell contact is
predominantly maintained via
Gap junction
In ligament fibroblasts, cell-to cell contact is
predominantly maintained via
Adhesion type
In ligament fibroblasts, cell-to matrix contact is
predominantly maintained via
Focal contact
The collagen that does not exist in fibrous form is the
Type VII collagen
During collagen synthesis, before the helix formation,
occurs the proline and lysine residues undergo
In the synthesis of collagen, the disulphide bonding at C
terminal extension brings about
Proper alignment
Procollagen molecules are in
Non-staggered configuration 
The time between the formation and secretion of collagen
molecule is the
Transit time
The transit time of human collagen molecule is
35 to 60 minutes
Mobilization and migration of epithelial cells is
visualized in histology as
Widening of intercellular spaces
During the rapid repair of a non-infected oral wound by
primary retention, the epithelial cells exhibit
Pentose phosphate shunt

One Response to “oral physiology-1”

  1. Sudarshan Mandlecha

    Fast pain carried by a delta fiber not c fiber pls clerify


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