List
Development of teeth
Mention various stages of tooth
development. Describe in detail the life cycle of ameloblast with diagrams:
I.
Introduction-significance of having a thorough knowledge about tooth
development – formation of primary epithelial band (embryological
origin/initiation of tooth – development, primary epithelial band, dental
lamina, vestibular lamina) – list of the stage of tooth development – 2.
Description of the developmental stages in detail – Bud stage (with diagram) –
Cap stage (with diagram) – Early bell stage (with diagram) – Advanced bell
stage (Breakdown of dental lamina, hard tissue formation, crown – pattern
determination/morphodifferentiation and root formation with diagram) – 3.
Life-cycle of ameloblast/Amelogenesis – Definition/what is amelogenesis – Light
microscopic electron microscopic description of ameloblast during amelogeneis –
electron microscopic description of ameloblast during amelogeneis/ Stages in
amelogenesis (morphogenic, organizing , formative, maturative, protective
and  desmolytic stages – with diagrams
for each  stage) – note on the enamel
proteins secreted – Clinical significance

Describe various stages of tooth
development –
1. Introduction-significance of having
a thorough knowledge about tooth development – formation of primary epithelial
band (embryological origin/initiation of tooth-development, primary epithelial
band, dental lamina, vestibular lamina) – list of the stages of tooth
development- 2. Description of the developmental stages in detail – Bud stage
(with diagram) – Cap stage (with diagram) – Early bell stage (with diagram) –
Advanced bell stage (Breakdown of dental lamina, hard tissue formation, crown
pattern determination/morphodifferentiation and root formation with diagram) –
3. Histophysiology of tooth development.- 4. Nerve and vascular supply during
early development.- 5. Summary/Conclusion (note on: formation of permanent
dentition-eruption and supporting      structures, timeline of tooth development
with diagram of ontogeny of tooth)    
and clinical considerations (anodontia, supernumerary teeth, enamel
hypoplasia, dilacerations,    
accessory/supernumerary roots.

Describe the bell stage of tooth
development with the help of diagrams and add a note on root development –
Tooth
development – introduction – list the stages of tooth development – overview of
bell stage of tooth development – 2. Description of the Bell Stage – Early bell
stage (describe inner enamel epithelium, stratum intermedium, stellate
reticulum, outer enamel epithelium, dental lamina, dental papilla, dental
sac-with diagram) – Advanced bell stage (breakdown of dental lamina,
mineralization and crown- pattern determination/morphodifferentiation, hard
tissue formation  with diagram) – 3. Root
formation – Root formation-an overview/introduction  – Hertwig’s Epithelial Root Sheath(formation,
function/role in root formation, discovered by, general features and fate of
HERS with diagram) – Root dentinogenesis/Root dentin formation – Cementogenesis
– Formation of single rooted tooth (with diagram) – Formation of multirooted
tooth (with diagram) – Root development and eruption – 4. Clinical significance
(enamel hypoplasia, enamel pearl formation, accessory root development,
dilaceration)

Enumerate the various stages of tooth
development. Describe in detail advanced bell stage –
1.
Introduction-significance of having a thorough knowledge about tooth
development – formation of primary epithelial band (embryological
origin/initiation of tooth – development, primary epithelial band, dental
lamina, vestibular lamina) – list of the stages of tooth development – 2.
Description of the developmental stages in detail – Bud stage (with diagram) –
Cap stage (with diagram) – Early bell stage (with diagram) – Advanced bell
stage – overview – 3. Advanced bell stage – Breakdown of dental lamina – Crown
pattern determination / morphodifferentiation – Hard tissue formation (describe
reciprocal induction, formation of enamel and dentin from ameloblast and
odontoblast respectively with diagram) – Root formation (formation of
Hertiwig’s epithelial root sheath and its role in root formation, root
dentinogenesis and cementogenesis, formation of single rooted tooth,
formation  of multirooted tooth and note
on the fate of HERS with diagrams) – Clinical consideration (enamel pearl
formation, accessory root development)

Write an essay on tooth development.
Add a note on the histodifferentiation and morphodifferentiation of
odontogenesis:
I. Introduction-significance of having
a thorough knowledge about tooth development – formation of primary epithelial
band (embryological origin/initiation of tooth –  development, primary epithelial band, dental
lamina, vestibular lamina) – list of the stages of tooth development – 2.
Description of the developmental stages in detail – Bud stage (with diagram) –
Cap stage (with diagram) – Early bell stage (with diagram) – Advanced bell
stage (Breakdown of dental lamina, hard tissue formation, crown – pattern
determination/morphodifferentiation and root formation with diagram) – 3.
Histophysiology of tooth development. – Development of tooth based on
histophysiological process ( overview of intiation, proliferation,
histodifferentiation, morphodifferentiation and apposition) –
Histodifferentiation (What is histodifferentiation/definition, differentiation
of ameloblast, differentiation of odontoblast, reciprocal induction with
diagram) – Morphodifferentiation (What is morphodifferentiation, establishment
of dentinoenamel junction and dentinocemental junction and their role in
determining crown pattern, incremental pattern of enamel and dentin deposition
along DEJ and Dentinocemental junction with diagram) – 4. Summary/Conclusion
(note on: nerve and vascular supply during early development,     formation of permanent dentition-eruption
and supporting structures, timeline of tooth    
development with diagram of ontogeny of tooth) and clinical
considerations (anodontia, supernumerary teeth, enamel hypoplasia,
dilacerations, accessory/supernumerary roots)

Describe the development of roots of
maxillary permanent molars:-
1. Introduction – no. and name (Max:
MB, DB, P) of roots of maxillary permanent molars – chronology of maxillary
permanent molars (first evidence of calcification, eruption and root
completion) – 2. Root development in maxillary permanent molars – I. formation
of HERS – role in root formation (with diagram) – 2. root dentin development –
3. epithelial diaphragm – role in root formation in the case of three rooted
maxillary permanent molars (with diagram) – 3. Clinical Considerations
(supernumerary roots, dilacerations)

Functions of stellate reticulum: What
is stellate reticulum? – location of these cells in the enamel organ – shape of
the cells (role of glycosaminoglycans in determining the shape) – 2. Diagram –
3. Functions of stellate reticulum/role of stellate reticulum in tooth development
(cushioning effect, shock absorption, protection, makes enamel organ resistant
and elastic)- role of enzyme – 4. Fate of stellate reticulum prior to tooth
eruption

Fate of dental lamina: I. What is dental lamina?-  primary epithelial band and formation of
dental lamina diagram – 2. Fate of dental lamina – disintegration of dental
lamina with diagram – eruption of teeth into the oral cavity (natural break in
the continuity of the oral epithelium) 3. Clinical consideration – enamel
pearl  – odontome/eruption cyst/
supernumerary teeth –  gingivitis and
periodontitis (integrity of junctional epithelium compromised)

Development of pulp: 1.
Role of dental papilla in the formation of dental pulp –  
description of cells in dental papilla –
differentiation of mesenchymal cells into fibroblast and other pulp components
2. Embryological origin/ initiation of development of dental pulp during
embryogenesis 3. Formation of pulp organ after differentiation of odontoblast
and ameloblast – formation of cells – establishment of capillaries and nerve
fibres – 4. Diagram – 5. Clinical consideration-growth factors produced for
innervations of pulp during development

Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath: 1.
Formation; discovered by/named after –
2.
General features/description with diagram – 3. Function/role
in root formation-in single rooted tooth, in multirooted tooth with diagram –
4. Fate of HERS with diagram-cell rests of Malassez – 5. Clinical consideration
(supernumerary roots, dilaceration)

Cell rests of Malassez: 1.
Formation (from HERS); discovered by/named after 2. Arrangement and
distribution – 3. Description of the cells – Light microscopic and electron
microscopic appearance – 4. Diagram – 5. Clinical Consideration (tumor, cyst,
cementicles)
Histodifferentiation and
morphodifferentiation of ameloblast:
1. Introduction/overview of
histodifferentiation and morphodifferentiation in tooth development – 2.
Histodifferentiation – what is histodifferentiation/definition, –
differentiation of ameloblast, differentiation of odontoblast, reciprocal
induction – 3. Morphodifferentiation – What is morphodifferentiation –  establishment of dentinoenamel junction and
dentinocemental junction- crown pattern determination and  incremental pattern of enamel and dentin
deposition- 4. Diagrams (for histodifferentiation and morphodifferentiation) –
5. Clinical Considerations (enamel hypoplasia, atypical dentin, supernumerary
cusp, peg shaped teeth, dilaceration, supernumerary roots)
.
Bell stage: 1.
Bell stage in tooth development – introduction/overview 2. Early bell stage
(describe inner enamel epithelium, stratum intermedium,  stellate reticulum,     outer enamel epithelium, dental lamina,
dental papilla, dental sac-with diagram) 3. Advanced bell stage (breakdown of
dental lamina, mineralization and crown pattern 
determination/morphodifferentiation, hard tissue formation  with diagram)- 4. Clinical Considerations
(enamel hypoplasia, atypical dentin, supernumerary cusp, peg shaped teeth,
dilacerations, supernumerary roots).
Late Bell stage: 1.
Bell stage in tooth development – introduction; breakdown of dental lamina 2.
Hard tissue formation (describe reciprocal induction, formation of enamel and
dentin from     ameloblast and
odontoblast respectively/histodifferentiation with diagram)- 3. Crown pattern
determination / morphodifferentiation with diagram – 4. Root formation
(formation of Hertiwig’s epithelial root sheath and its role in  root formation,  root dentinogenesis and cementogeneis,
formation of single rooted tooth, formation 
of multirooted tooth and note on the fate of HERS with diagrams) – 5.
Clinical consideration (enamel pearl formation, accessory root development)
Epithelial mesenchymal interaction in
tooth development:
1. Introduction-what is epithelial
mesenchymal interaction? – 2. Epithelial mesenchymal interaction in the
differentiation of ameloblast and odontoblast with diagram – 3. Epithelial
mesenchymal interaction in the formation of root dentin and cementum with  diagram. – 4. Epithelial mesenchymal
interaction in the formation of supporting tissues of the tooth i.e.
periodontal ligament and alveolar bone – 5. Clinical considerations (enamel
hypoplasia, osteodentin) and molecular insights (signal involved in epithelial
mesenchymal interactions)



Enamel
Describe life cycle of ameloblasts: Stages of ameloblasts – 6 stages –
differentiation from dental lamina – oral epithelium – formation of bud –
differentiation of inner and outer cells – changes in organelles, form, shape,
size and function. Reciprocal induction – genetic control – interplay of growth
factors and differentiation factors – With diagrams
Microscopic feature of enamel: Composition of enamel – organic, water and
inorganic. Feature of enamel of rods – Light microscopy, Electron microscopy.
Direction of enamel, number, ends of rods. Structures observed in enamel –
lamellae, tufts, spindles, DEJ, Hunter-Schreuger Bands, Incremental lines,
Gnarled enamel, dead tract – Diagrams
Age changes in enamel: Physical changes- in constitution, water content,
amount of surface mineralization, regressive changes in enamel, cracks.
Chemical constitution – impact of surface re-mineralization, Caries incidence   
Enamel lamellae: What is it – where – why – how – what does it
cause- Role of stress – effect of enamel lamella – Diagrams
Dentinoenamel junction: where is it – shape – number – convexity facing –
why corrugated. Structures associated with DEJ – what makes DEJ unique –
separation – membrane preformitiva – clinical correlation- Diagrams
 
Enamel tufts: what is it – where – why – how – what does it
cause- Role of stress – effect of enamel tufts – regular – change in organic
composition – fault zone – Diagrams
 
Gnarled enamel: what is it – where – why – how – what does it cause-
Optical illusion – Role of stress – how it supports in dissipating the force –
Diagrams
Histological structure of enamel: Composition of enamel – organic, water and
inorganic. Feature of enamel of rods – Light microscopy, Electron microscopy.
Direction of enamel, number, ends of rods. Structures observed in enamel –
lamellae, tufts, spindles, DEJ, Hunter-Schreuger Bands, Incremental lines,
Gnarled enamel, dead tract, Neo-natal ring – Nasmyth’s membrane – Diagrams
Ameloblasts: Cell of origin – how inner enamel epithelium turns
to ameloblasts – reversal of polarity – inductive effect – change in position
of organelles – life cycle of ameloblast – secretion – stages – processes –
nutrition source – desmolysis – Diagrams
Enamel spindle: What is it – where – why – how – what does it
cause- types – extension – effects of extension – clinical significance –
Diagrams
Enumerate hypocalcified areas of enamel and describe enamel lamellae,
tufts. Give their clinical significance:
How there is defective or decreased calcification
– lamellar, tufts, spindles, DEJ. Enamel lamellae: What is it – where – why –
how – what does it cause- Role of stress – effect of enamel lamella –
Dentinoenamel junction: where is it – shape – number – convexity facing – why
corrugated. Structures associated with DEJ – what makes DEJ unique – separation
– membrane preformitiva – clinical correlation 
– Enamel tufts: what is it – where – why – how – what does it cause-
Role of stress – effect of enamel tufts – regular – change in organic
composition – fault zone – Enamel spindle: what is it – where – why – how –
what does it cause- types – extension – effects of extension – clinical
significance – Diagrams
Lines of enamel: How lines are formed – incremental lines – daily
rhythm – neonatal ring; Bands – Hunter Scherger Bands: Uses – clinical
implication – age estimation – tetracycline etc., – Diagrams
Enamel rods: Structure, direction, number, size, shape, degree
of calcification. Appearance under light microscope and electron microscope,
crystals orientation, direction of crystals. Clinical significance of enamel
rod direction – difference between primary and secondary dentition; acid
etching – Diagrams
Describe microscopic appearance of enamel: Composition
of enamel – organic, water and inorganic. Feature of enamel of rods – Light
microscopy, Electron microscopy. Direction of enamel, number, ends of rods.
Structures observed in enamel – lamellae, tufts, spindles, DEJ,
Hunter-Schreuger Bands, Incremental lines, Gnarled enamel, dead tract,
Neo-natal ring – Nasmyth’s membrane – Structure, direction, number, size,
shape, degree of calcification. Appearance under light microscope and electron
microscope, crystals orientation, direction of crystals. Clinical significance
of enamel rod direction – difference between primary and secondary dentition;
acid etching – Diagrams
Describe structure of mature enamel: Composition of enamel – organic, water and
inorganic. Feature of enamel of rods – Light microscopy, Electron microscopy.
Direction of enamel, number, ends of rods. Structures observed in enamel –
lamellae, tufts, spindles, DEJ, Hunter-Schreuger Bands, Incremental lines,
Gnarled enamel, dead tract, Neo-natal ring – Nasmyth’s membrane – Structure,
direction, number, size, shape, degree of calcification. Appearance under light
microscope and electron microscope, crystals orientation, direction of
crystals. Clinical significance of enamel rod direction – difference between
primary and secondary dentition; acid etching – Diagrams
Maturation of enamel: Stages of differentiation – Maturation phase –
final changes in ameloblasts – changes in enamel matrix – calcification process
– Tomes granular process – Reduced enamel epithelium – desmolytic changes –
clinical significance.
Hunter-Scherger bands: What is it – where – why – how – what does it
cause- why the color  and optics –
clinical significance – Diagrams
Incremental lines of Retzius: Structure, direction, number, size, shape, degree
of calcification. Appearance under light microscope and electron microscope,
crystals orientation, direction of crystals. Clinical significance of –
difference between primary and secondary dentition; Neonatal ring- Diagrams
Describe amelogenesis with suitable diagrams: Stages
of ameloblasts – 6 stages – differentiation from dental lamina – oral
epithelium – formation of bud – differentiation of inner and outer cells –
changes in organelles, form, shape, size and function. Reciprocal induction –
genetic control – interplay of growth factors and differentiation factors – With
diagrams – Morphogenetic, histodifferentiation etc.,
Discuss in detail the life cycle of ameloblast: Stages
of ameloblasts – 6 stages – differentiation from dental lamina – oral
epithelium – formation of bud – differentiation of inner and outer cells –
changes in organelles, form, shape, size and function. Reciprocal induction –
genetic control – interplay of growth factors and differentiation factors –
With diagrams – Morphogenetic, histodifferentiation etc.,
Enumerate with suitable diagrams the microscopic structure of enamel:
Composition of enamel – organic, water and inorganic. Feature of enamel of rods
– Light microscopy, Electron microscopy. Direction of enamel, number, ends of
rods. Structures observed in enamel – lamellae, tufts, spindles, DEJ,
Hunter-Schreuger Bands, Incremental lines, Gnarled enamel, dead tract,
Neo-natal ring – Nasmyth’s membrane – Structure, direction, number, size,
shape, degree of calcification. Appearance under light microscope and electron
microscope, crystals orientation, direction of crystals. Clinical significance
of enamel rod direction – difference between primary and secondary dentition;
acid etching – Diagrams
Life cycle of ameloblast: Stages of ameloblasts – 6 stages – differentiation
from dental lamina – oral epithelium – formation of bud – differentiation of
inner and outer cells – changes in organelles, form, shape, size and function.
Reciprocal induction – genetic control – interplay of growth factors and
differentiation factors – With diagrams – Morphogenetic, histodifferentiation
etc.,
Hypocalcified structures of enamel     : How
there is defective or decreased calcification – lamellar, tufts, spindles, DEJ.
Enamel lamellae: What is it – where – why – how – what does it cause- Role of
stress – effect of enamel lamella – Dentinoenamel junction: where is it – shape
– number – convexity facing – why corrugated. Structures associated with DEJ –
what makes DEJ unique – separation – membrane preformitiva – clinical
correlation  – Enamel tufts: what is it –
where – why – how – what does it cause- Role of stress – effect of enamel tufts
– regular – change in organic composition – fault zone – Enamel spindle: what
is it – where – why – how – what does it cause- types – extension – effects of
extension – clinical significance – Diagrams
Morphodifferentiation of enamel organ: Stages of ameloblasts – 6 stages – differentiation
from dental lamina – oral epithelium – formation of bud – differentiation of
inner and outer cells – changes in organelles, form, shape, size and function.
Reciprocal induction – genetic control – interplay of growth factors and
differentiation factors – With diagrams – Morphogenetic, histodifferentiation
etc.,- abnormalities associated with morphodifferentiation.



Dentin
Osteodentin: define – types of tertiary dentin – rapidity of
production – external/internal stimulus – trapping of new/old odontoblast –
appearance – clinical significance; Diagram
Age changes in dentin: Macroscopic changes – color, size, thickness,
regressive alteration, sensitivity; Microscopic changes – dead tracts,
eburnation, sclerotic dentin – Changes in constitution – Inorganic, organic
Describe histology and functions of dentin:
dentinal tubules – shape, microscopic and submicroscopic structures –
intertubular, intratubular, Hypocalcified areas of dentin, course of dentinal
tubules, types of dentin – primary, secondary, tertiary, mantle, circumpulpal,
predentin; Functions – reciprocal induction, secretive, nutritive, sensory,
protective, semipermeable, reparative; Diagram
Sensitivity of dentin: defects in enamel – how chemical alterative in
oral environment reaches dentin – odontoblastic fibers in DEJ – Mechanism of
sensing – three theories – direct innervations; transduction;  hydrodynamic theory – clinical significance.
Diagram
Sensitivity of dentin theories: Mechanism of sensing – three theories – direct innervations;
transduction;  hydrodynamic theory –
clinical significance. Diagram
Interglobular dentin: Mineralization of dentin – spheres of
calcification – fusion of globules – appearance – color – position of
interglobular dentin
Dead tracts: Appearance – reason – when, where, how, why –
clinical significance
Types of dentin: time of formation – primary/secondary/ tertiary
and place – predentin/circumpulpal/mantle dentin: microscopic –
inter/intra/peri tubular dentin; Sclerotic dentin/eburnated dentin – diagrams
Reparative dentin: type of stimulus – reactive/reparative dentin –
odontoblast differentiation – difference between normal and reparative dentin
ultra-structure and composition – significance
Innervations of dentin: odontoblastic process – plexus of Raskhow – enamel
spindles – theories of dentinal hypersensitivity – DEJ – pain pathway – types
of nerve endings in dentin- pulp complex – clinical implication
Inter and peritubular dentin: Ultra-structure of dentinal tubule – lamina
limitans – inter and intra tubular dentin – peritubular dentin – difference in
composition – rate of mineralization – function – origin – clinical implication
including acid etching
Mantle dentin: place of formation – difference between predentin –
Mantle dentin in composition – collagen fiber variation – strength – clinical
implication
Enumerate various types of dentin. Describe primary dentin: time
of formation – primary/secondary/ tertiary and place –
predentin/circumpulpal/mantle dentin: microscopic – inter/intra/peri tubular
dentin; Sclerotic dentin/eburnated dentin – diagrams. Roots formation – how
root formation cause shift in course of dentinal tubule – line separating
Sclerotic dentin: age change in dentin – death of odontoblastic
process – retraction – space – mineralization – Refractive index – similarity –
clinical implication
Dentinal tubules: constituents – direction – micro and macroscopic
structure – no. of tubules per sq mm; types – 
fluid – C.S. of dentin diagram; collagen and mineral variation –
clinical implication
Primary and secondary curvatures of dentinal tubules: root
formation – difference in direction of dentinal tubules – line separating the
primary and secondary curvature – neonatal ring – curves at terminal ends
Odontoblasts: cells of papilla – reciprocal induction –
differentiation of odontoblasts – factors stimulating – life long secretion –
activity – functions of odontoblasts – reparative function
Secondary and tertiary dentin: time of formation – primary/secondary/tertiary
dentin – difference in curves – inorganic constituents – rate of formation –
difference in collagen, direction and orientation of fibers
Theories of dentin sensitivity: Mechanism of sensing – three theories – direct
innervations; transduction;  hydrodynamic
theory – clinical significance. Diagram
Hypocalcified structures of dentin: DEJ, Interglobular dentin,  Enamel Lamellae Type C, Cracks – mechanism of
formation – where- why – when – how ?
Denticles: Definition – location – classification
– etiology  –  true & false denticles – pulp stones  – free – attached – embedded  – 
clinical considerations   –  diagram
Odontoblatic process: morphology – extension of cell
body  – extent – function, size,
direction, orientation with dentinal tubules,dental lymph/fluid, theories of
hypersensitivity, plexus of Rashkow, extension in to enamel – clinical
significance
Tome’s granular layer: radicular dentin – cementum – dentin junction –
bending and looping of tubule – reason optical appearance under LM – Diagrams
Explain dentinogenesis: Definition – location – differentiation
of odontoblast from papilla cells – reciprocal induction – secretion of dentin
matrix – calcification of matrix – Matrix vesicle theory – Interglobular dentin
Write in detail about the structure of dentin. Add a note on age
changes of dentin.
dentinal tubules – shape, microscopic and
submicroscopic structures – intertubular, intratubular, Hypocalcified areas of
dentin, course of dentinal tubules, types of dentin – primary, secondary,
tertiary, mantle, circumpulpal, predentin; Functions – reciprocal induction,
secretive, nutritive, sensory, protective, semipermeable, reparative; Diagram
Age changes in dentin: Macroscopic changes – color, size, thickness, regressive alteration,
sensitivity; Microscopic changes – dead tracts, eburnation, sclerotic dentin –
Changes in constitution – Inorganic, organic
Discuss the microscopic structure of dentin: dentinal
tubules – shape, size, number, types, tubules direction, structure with diagram
Pain transmission in dentin: Plexus of Rashkow – Dentin – pulp complex, dentin
fluid –
Theories of dentin sensitivity: Mechanism of
sensing – three theories – direct innervations; transduction;  hydrodynamic theory – clinical significance.
Diagram



Cementum
Cellular cementum: Definition
of cementum – physical characteristics – chemical composition  – 
organic, inorganic water content  
–  location – cementoblast  and cementocyte  – 
morphology& function  – fibres
in cellular cementum  –  functions & incremental lines. Diagram
Cementum: Definition
of cementum – physical characteristics – chemical composition  – 
organic, inorganic water content – classification – acellular
&cellular  –  fibres in cellular  and acellular cementum  – 
location – cementoblast  and
cementocyte  –  morphology& function  – functions of cementum  –  
incremental lines –CEJ  –   Diagram
Types of cementum: Definition
of cementum – physical characteristics – chemical composition–classification
based on presence of cementocytes & type of fibre present – acellular
&cellular  –  fibres in cellular  and acellular cementum  – 
location – cementoblast  and
cementocyte  –  morphology& function – Hylaine layer –
Intermediate cementum – incremental lines –CEJ—differences between AEFC
&CIFC –  Diagrams
Cementogenesis: Definition
– Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath  –
origin of cementoblast—morphology and function – processes involved in
cementogenesis – Development of cellular and acellular cementum –
Mineralisation – matrix formation – attatchment of fibres—incremental line
formation – cementocytes—Diagram
Hypercementosis: Definition
– etiology (physiological  –  & pathological) – location –
classification (localised/extensive ; single tooth/many) – excementosis –
clinical considerations (extraction of teeth) – Diagram.
Excementosis: Definition
– etiology(physiological  –  & pathological) – location –
classification (localised/extensive ; single tooth/many) – clinical
considerations (extraction of teeth)
Cementocytes: Origin—morphology
– function – location – clinical considerations – Diagram
Differences between cementum and bone: Definition  – 
composition – morphology – vascularity – nourishment – secretion-
processes direction – remodelling – 
function  –  location 
–  cementogenesis  – 
osteogenesis  –  clinical considerations – Diagrams.
Intermediate cementum: Cemento
dentinal junction – Intermediate cementum layer –  origin – composition-   relationship to dentin – alternate name –
location – function
Classify cementum and write about
cementogenesis and functions of cementum –
classification based on presence of
cementocytes & type of fibre present – acellular &cellular  – 
fibres in cellular  and acellular
cementum – Definition of cementogenesis – Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath  – origin of cementoblast—morphology and
function – processes involved in cementogenesis – Development of cellular and
acellular cementum – Mineralisation – matrix formation – attatchment of
fibres—incremental line formation – cementocytes—Diagram – Functions – Repair –
Anchorage  –  Adaptation
Acellular cementum – Define
cementum  –  classification based on cementocyte presence
– based on the fibre content – Acellular Extrinsic Fibre Cementum – Acellular
Afibrillar Cementum – Acellular Mixed Fibre Cementum – location – rate of
deposition – sharpey’s fibres   –  incremental lines arrangement – function  – 
Diagram.
Compare Osteocytes and Cementocytes – Explain
about osteocytes  & Cementocytes –
origin – secretion – matrix – period of activity – stimulation – resting –
reactivation – lacunae  –  canaliculi – immunocytochemistry – Diagram
  



Maxillary sinus
Maxillary sinus: Definition
– developmental aspects (note on: developmental anomalies) – structure and
variations, microscopic features, functional importance, clinical
considerations – diagram
Structure of maxillary sinus: Definition
– shape – size – relation to the surrounding structures (four sides) –   ostium – pneumatization/recess development –
diagram – -clinical considerations
Histology of maxillary sinus: Definition
– light microscopic structure (epithelium, goblets cells and its functions) –
diagram – ultramicroscopic structure (nucleus, cytoplasmic organelles, cilia,
basal bodies), –  secretions of epithelial
–  secretions from the subepithelial
glands (serous acini, mucous acini, myoepithelial cells – nervous stimulation
of secretions
Antrum of Highmore: Definition
of maxillary sinus – definition/what is ostium or antrum of Highmore? –
anatomic location in relation to walls of maxillary sinus – relations with the
surrounding structures – functional significance/clinical considerations –
diagram
Histology of epithelium of maxillary
sinus:
Definition – olfactory epithelium –
cell types – diagram – goblet cells and their functions – electron microscopic view (cilia, basal bodies,
mitochondria, GAGs synthesis, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum) –  functional significance of the histology of
maxillary sinus epithelium/clinical considerations
Anatomy of maxillary sinus: Definition
– shape – size – relation to the surrounding structures (four sides) – ostium –
pneumatization/recess development – diagram – nerve supply – blood supply and
clinical considerations



Pulp
Age changes in pulp: Pulp
histology – Regressive changes – cell changes – fibrosis – vascular
changes—pulp stones—free –attached & embedded – diffuse
calcifications—Diagram.
Pulp stones: Definition—location—classification
– etiology  –  true & false denticles – pulp stones  – free – attached – embedded  – 
clinical considerations   –  diagram
Cell free and cell rich zone of pulp: Histology
of pulp – parts  of surrounding
specialized odontogenic region –  Other
name of cell free zone –  function of
this layer – Composition of cell rich zone—fibroblast, undifferentiated
mesenchymal cells, fibres & defense cells – period  of formation – Diagram
Defense cells of pulp: Elaborate
on histiocytes,  dendritic cells, plasma
cells—function and morphology.
Pulp at periphery: Circumscribed
by specialized odontogenic region – cells – zones – function and
composition—Diagram.
Pulp calcifications:  Pulp stones and diffuse
calcifications  –  Definition—location—classification –
etiology  –  true & false denticles – pulp stones  – free – attached – embedded  – 
clinical considerations   –  diagram.
Histology of pulp: General
features of pulp – coronal & radicular pulp 
–  layers of pulp – functions of
pulp  – 
Histology of pulp – parts  of
surrounding specialized odontogenic region – 
Other name of cell free zone – 
function of this layer – Composition of cell rich zone—fibroblast,
undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, fibres & defense cells – period  of formation – Diagram
Zones of pulp: Histology
of pulp – parts  of surrounding
specialized odontogenic region –  Other
name of cell free zone –  function of
this layer – Composition of cell rich zone—fibroblast, undifferentiated
mesenchymal cells, fibers & defense cells – period  of formation – Diagram.
Mast cells: Origin  – 
Morphology  –  composition – function   – 
H& E staining  – Clinical
considerations( role in inflammation )
Describe
histology of pulp:
General features of pulp – coronal
& radicular pulp  –  layers of pulp – functions of pulp  –  Histology
of pulp – parts  of surrounding
specialized odontogenic region –  Other
name of cell free zone –  function of
this layer – Composition of cell rich zone – fibroblast, undifferentiated
mesenchymal cells, fibers & defense cells – period  of formation – Diagram



Periodontal ligament
Describe
the histology of periodontal ligament and briefly mention its functions:
A. Introduction – periodontium / periodontal ligament – B.
Histology of periodontal ligament – 1. Cells – synthetic cells (osteoblasts,
fibroblasts, cementoblasts) – resorptive cells
(osteoclasts,fibroblasts,intracellular degradation, cementoclasts) – progenitor
cells – epithelial cell rests of Malassez – – defense cells (mast cells,
macrophages and lymphocytes) – 2. Extracellular substance  – fibers (Collagen, Sharpey’s fibers,
intermediate plexus, elastic fibers, reticular fibers, secondary fibers,
indifferent fiber plexus – ground substance – interstitial tissue – 3.
Structures present in connective tissue – blood vessels –         – lymphatic drainage – nerves –
cementicles – C. Function – Supportive – Sensory – Nutritive  – Homeostatic – Eruptive    – Physical – D. Age changes, unique
features of PDL, clinical considerations

What
are the functions of periodontal ligament? :
Introduction/what
is periodontal ligament – functions in detail: Supportive – Sensory – Nutritive
– Homeostatic – Eruptive – Physical — with representative diagrams

Principal
fibers of periodontal ligament:
Introduction/what is periodontal
ligament – Principal fibers (development, location, attachment and functions of
each group of fibers):alveolar crest group – horizontal group –  Oblique group – apical group – interradicular
group – -diagram

Cells
of periodontal ligament:
Introduction/what is periodontal
ligament –  Principal cells: Synthetic
cells (fibroblast, osteoblast, cementoblast) – Resorptive cells (osteoclasts,
fibroblasts and cementoclasts) – 
Progenitor cells – defense cells (mast cells, macrophages, eosinophils)
–  with representative diagrams for each
cell type

Passive
eruption:
What is passive eruption? –  Stages of passive eruption (physiological
and  pathological stages of passive
eruption of tooth)  –  note on anatomic and clinical crowns of the
tooth. – diagram

Sharpey’s
fibers:
What are Sharpey’s fibers —
attachment/arrangement –  mineralization
–  – transalveolar fibers –
non-collagenous proteins associated – 
diagram

Fibers
of periodontal ligament:
Introduction/what is periodontal
ligament – Fibers of PDL: Collagen fibers (principal fibers, Sharpey’s fibers,
intermediate plexus) – elastic-oxytalan fibers – reticular fibers – secondary
fibers – indifferent fiber plexus – diagrams



  Posts

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February 5th, 2024

4-Steps to Deal with College Campus Romantic Relationships

As we step into February, love is in the air, peaking on 14th February. This month with Valentine’s day, as […]

January 29th, 2024

Building Future Healers: 5 Keys to Combating Increasing Parental Influence and Absenteeism in Indian Medical and Dental Colleges

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February 28th, 2014

Know your tool – Microscope

Image distance and object distance. With respect to the principal planes of a lens, the image-to-lens and object-to-lens distances, as […]

February 28th, 2014

Definitions in Microscopy

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February 21st, 2014

Inking the Specimen

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February 13th, 2014

Tissue Sampling Techniques – Small Biopsies & Triaging

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February 6th, 2014

GROSSING AND REPORTING OF ORAL PATHOLOGICAL SPECIMENS

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January 30th, 2014

Previous Year Question Papers of Various universities – For MDS – Oral Pathology

CONNECTIVE TISSUE STAINS 1.     Discuss the CT stains10 mks(RGUHS) 2.     Routine stains used in oral pathology-10 mks(RGUHS) 3.     Discuss stains […]

January 23rd, 2014

Previous years questions from various Indian Universities – for MDS in Oral Pathology

PULP AND PERIAPICAL INFECTIONS Chronic hyperplastic pulpitis- 10 mks Define and classify Osteomyelitis. Discuss in detail non- suppurative OM-10 mks […]

January 16th, 2014

Previous years questions from various Indian Universities – for MDS in Oral Pathology

MISCELLANEOUS IN ORAL PATHOLOGY 1.      Granulomatous infections of the oral cavity- 100 mks (MU) 2.      Oro- facial pain-10 mks 3.      […]